This research article aims to investigate green public procurement as a tool for sustainable and secure food policy on the example of Poland. The practical objective of the study is to present the application of an analyzed wide range policy tool supporting sustainable food consumption in Poland. First, the systematic literature review of regulatory and market-based tools with an overview on policy rationale was carried out. Second, to assess consumers’ preferences on green public procurement, the exploratory survey with CAWI method in period from 1.01 to 31.03.2022 was conducted. Third, to quantify the survey results, one-way ANOVA analysis was applied. Fourth, to deepen only statistically significant dependencies between customers and green public procurement, Cluster Analysis was used. There are plenty interesting and applicative findings from the study. In a short time-horizon, the results show that there is a growing interest in market-based instruments on the food market expressed by consumers. Moreover, the consumers favor those that are less coercive and do not directly affect their freedom of food choice. The study found a high degree of match between green public procurement and established consumer clusters, which can be applied by state authorities in a long-time horizon.
The protection of cultural heritage is an important element of a country’s cultural policy. The article describes the nature of threats posed by armed conflicts to cultural heritage and the destruction of Ukrainian cultural property by Russian aggression in 2022. The article aims at discussion of the consequences of Russia’s deliberate destruction of Ukrainian cultural heritage and offers an interdisciplinary insight into protection of cultural heritage during the contemporary armed conflict. These initial observations from Russian aggression against Ukraine serve as a starting point for a discussion on challenges related to the protection of cultural heritage during a potential armed conflict in Central and Eastern Europe. Drawing on practical observations from Ukraine, the article calls for improvements to the protection of cultural heritage in Poland.
The protection of cultural heritage is seen as an important element of a country’s cultural policy. The article describes the nature of the threats posed by Russian aggression on Ukrainian cultural heritage and the destruction of cultural property. The article was aimed at highlighting the consequences of Russia’s deliberate destruction of Ukrainian cultural heritage and an interdisciplinary look at its value and protection during the contemporary armed conflict. This assessment can serve as a starting point for a discussion on the challenges related to the protection of cultural heritage during a potential armed conflict in Central and Eastern Europe. Drawing on practical examples of Ukraine, solutions were proposed to improve the protection of cultural heritage in Poland.
Economic security of any state is multifaceted. Affordability of basics, required for living serves are precondition for economic security of any state. The study presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of apartment sales in respective voivodships in Poland. The following dependent variables concerning apartments in sixteen voivodships were analyzed: price per \( m^2 \), number of sales and its value. The dynamics indices on a constant basis and the normalization for stimulants were used for the analyzes. The results of the research were compiled on categorized bar charts, conducting the ranking, as well as indicating and outlining the level of deviation of the analyzed data adopted by the author. The conducted research clearly showed how much of an impact on the state’s economy, with particular emphasis on the subject of research presented in the article, which is the apartment trade market, has a random incident, such as a pandemic, and how difficult it is to return to the conditions before Covid-19.
The article presents the current patterns in education of Prison Service officers on the example of one of the largest penitentiary units in Poland, i.e. the Penitentiary Facility in Włocławek. The tendencies and changes in provision by qualified staff in penitentiary system as a prerequisite of societal safety were defined due to analysis of data about education of officers of the Prison Service and penitentiary department in the years 1999–2019. In order to investigate the role of rehabilitation staff in the penitentiary system, it is important to assess the current distribution and structural changes in penitentiary staff which, in turn, can be crucial for achieving the objectives of the execution of the imprisonment penalty. To achieve and maintain societal safety, particularly security in penitentiary system it is important to consider changes in the capacity of the prisons. In this regard main positive trends are: increase of number and share of staff with special tertiary education affects the quality of the social rehabilitation work at the penitentiary facility; gender distribution of Prison Service staff tends to reflect distribution on prisoners; professional qualification of officers grows steadily. The main challenge for current penitentiary system in order to increase its educational impact on prisoners is hiring process which should be directed on attracting graduates of rehabilitation pedagogy and penitentiary pedagogy to work in the penitentiary department.
The paper provides an assessment of Poland’s efforts to address security threats over the last decade. The analysis is limited to energy security, environment protection, cybersecurity and information threats. Governmental strategies, policies and plans are confronted with the assessments of the Supreme Audit Office, academia and think tanks. The paper identifies common challenges related to development and implementation of the state’s response to traditional and emerging threats. It also discusses observed trade-offs and consequences of both actions and hesitance to act.
Family businesses are identified in many instances as small-scale entities. However, among family businesse, there are many huge corporations, and many of the world’s best-known brands are classified as being family orientated. They generate large revenues, which play a very important role in the global economy. In Poland, several examples of well-known brands belonging to families can be found, such as Mokate, Comarch and Farmacol. The aim of the article is to present selected large Polish family businesses against the background of some of the largest family businesses globally and to determine the difference between them. The research followed an empirical approach and is based on the analysis of secondary data sources, such as Ernst & Young Family Business Yearbook report series from 2015-2017, the Global Family Business Index ranking, and studies on Polish family businesses. The analyses confirmed that many of the global largest enterprises are indeed family businesses. The importance of family businesses in the economy is evident by the fact that in 2015, enterprises from the Global Family Business Index generated revenues higher than the GDP of most countries in the world. None of the large Polish family businesses have yet found their place in the analysed ranking, but also, in Poland, family businesses play a significant role, and some of them generate revenues of several billion dollars. Familism does not prevent enterprises from achieving a significant position in the market the largest family businesses in the world play such a strong role that their success or failure may affect the condition of the entire economy. Polish family businesses are not yet included in this group, but they are constantly growing. It can, therefore, be anticipated that in a few years, Polish family businesses will have a good representation in the Global Family Business Index and will help to ensure sustainable development of the Polish economy.
This paper is an attempt to review the European debate between proponents of the voluntary and the obligatory case for CSR in the middle of the economic crisis that we are living. Starting by the analysis of the current European government-led initiatives to foster CSR among companies we move to the analysis of two specific national government-led initiatives in the EU area, Spain and Poland. Finally, the paper focuses on the comparison of both cases, as an example of the disparities between national policies in Europe. The lack of a regulatory European framework for CSR could explain the misbalance between country initiatives.