In the present age, the phenomenon of pedophilia is a very important and as dangerous social issue, characterised by a complex and heterogeneous nature. It is an outcome of various factors inherent in the social, psychological, biological and cultural background, which constitute a homogeneous and coherent whole. Pedophilia polarizes social attitudes and leads to heated discussions. In the current reality, sexualisation of the child’s person is visible in the media, which can contribute to the unconscious perception of the child in terms of a sexual object. An important issue from the point of view of sociological considerations is to be able to answer questions about the etiology and symptomatology of the phenomenon.
The aim of this article is to show the impact of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and how their support helps the police in activities for the security of our country. Let us ask ourselves whether drones, as these mobile devices, are able to support various types of campaigns carried out by many uniformed services in Poland faster and easier. The police, using the latest techniques for reconnaissance and operational activities, can successfully indicate that UAVs are very necessary and facilitate work, especially in difficult conditions that are difficult for humans. That is why the policemen are trained on an ongoing basis in the field of UAV service so that they can effectively use the equipment for work, which was also indicated in their tasks. Increasingly, monitoring of the so-called in advance, it allows you to quickly reach the threat or people who threaten and want to commit acts that do not comply with applicable law.
The aim of the comparative analysis presented here was in a way to show a catalogue of ways of handling cases in which the complainant is incarcerated. Additionally the aim of this study is an attempt at explicating the current legal status in Poland in terms of the institution of lodging complaints by detainees and its functioning, and to compile a comparative analysis in the same subject area. In addition, the aim of the study is an attempt to present de lege lata conclusions and de lege ferenda postulates in the context of the matter in question. It should be emphasized that the institution of a complaint is notoriously used by persons deprived of their liberty, which is clearly visible in the statistical analysis presented in the article. For this reason, it seems justified to undertake legislative work in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and the Central Management of the Academy of Justice. This study uses a triangulation of the following research methods: descriptive research method, theoretical and legal method, comparative method with the elements of comparative law, and statistical method. The legal status adopted in the paper as on 30 October 2020.
The elementary interest of every country is to maintain its inner security and stability. To achieve this goal the state must restrict within legal frameworks some fundamental rights of its own citizens. One of these fundamental rights is the right to privacy that can be breached only under certain circumstances. It is easy to see that it is unacceptable for a state not to control within the legal frameworks the communication of its own citizens so they can commit crimes, run terrorist rings, or spy rings or establish drug cartels without any consequences. Of course, the control over the communication is not the only means of the successful investigation but undeniably a vital one. That is why the Janus faced nature of the Dark Web is a real security risk nowadays. Although this new medium is the fruit of the last two decades its presence today is stronger than ever before and its popularity is growing day by day. Its most important features are anonymity, hidden geolocation and freedom from censorship. The Dark Web is very useful when it provides anonymity for political dissidents and whistleblowers, but is very harmful when it provides the same features for arm and drug traffickers and terrorists not to mention for pedophiles and so on. This article aims to shed some light on the effects of the Dark Web on the security and economy of the states especially in the aspects of organized crime and the terrorism.
Many of us are living in apartment buildings and this form of living is becoming more frequent and popular with urban development. A large number of those living in apartment buildings are also owners of the apartment they live in (or other nonresidential premises in the apartment building). Not only rights, but also certain obligations are associated with the ownership of apartments. One of the legal obligations is to bear the common costs of goods and services, which are being provided to the apartment bulding. In Slovak republic, the division of these costs and the settlement of monthly advance payments is being done on an annual basis. The basis for the division of these costs is the proportionality of the use of the common parts and common facilities of the apartment building, which is expressed in the so called person months (metric unit for settlement). By not reporting the true number of personmonths to the administrator, an owner may gain material benefit (achieve higher overpayments and lower arrears) and this illegal financial benefit needs to be covered and compensated by other owners in the same apartment building. In terms of criminal law, the owner is committing fraud (a related offence to insolvency crimes). The authors analyze the legal aspects related to this criminal offence with relation to case law, legal doctrine, based on the systematical and teleological method of interpretation of relevant legal norms. The article addresses also issues related to the purposefullness of sanctioning of perpetrators, reflecting that the primary purpose of their fraudulent behaviour was enrichment (material gain).
Legal security is understood as the protection of vital goods and human interests by means of universally binding normative acts, which should be legible and understandable for their addressees, because the beneficiary of legal security is man. Due to the complexity of this concept, legal security can be considered from different perspectives in both formal and institutional terms, which has also been considered in this article.
Family businesses are identified in many instances as small-scale entities. However, among family businesse, there are many huge corporations, and many of the world’s best-known brands are classified as being family orientated. They generate large revenues, which play a very important role in the global economy. In Poland, several examples of well-known brands belonging to families can be found, such as Mokate, Comarch and Farmacol. The aim of the article is to present selected large Polish family businesses against the background of some of the largest family businesses globally and to determine the difference between them. The research followed an empirical approach and is based on the analysis of secondary data sources, such as Ernst & Young Family Business Yearbook report series from 2015-2017, the Global Family Business Index ranking, and studies on Polish family businesses. The analyses confirmed that many of the global largest enterprises are indeed family businesses. The importance of family businesses in the economy is evident by the fact that in 2015, enterprises from the Global Family Business Index generated revenues higher than the GDP of most countries in the world. None of the large Polish family businesses have yet found their place in the analysed ranking, but also, in Poland, family businesses play a significant role, and some of them generate revenues of several billion dollars. Familism does not prevent enterprises from achieving a significant position in the market the largest family businesses in the world play such a strong role that their success or failure may affect the condition of the entire economy. Polish family businesses are not yet included in this group, but they are constantly growing. It can, therefore, be anticipated that in a few years, Polish family businesses will have a good representation in the Global Family Business Index and will help to ensure sustainable development of the Polish economy.
Security, living environment, or entrepreneurship ecosystem is determined by wide array of factor. We tackle organized crime issues, which can cause potential insolvensy. In this article, the authors deal with a set of European Court of Human Rights decisions concerning the right to a fair trial and the use of an agent in criminal proceedings. From the investigated decisions, the authors conclude that the individual Slovak regulation, agent provocateur under § 117 par. 2 second sentence of the Criminal Procedure Code, a priori, is not inconsistent with decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. This is subject to the condition that the provision in question of the Criminal Procedure Code is interpreted in accordance with the principles established in the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights.
Security of societies has become one of urgent issues in contemporary world. Too frequently we started encountering one or another form of malicious behavior, criminal activities or terrorism. New and complex threats highlight the need for further synergies and closer cooperation at all levels. Awareness, preparedness and resilience of societies emerge as key preconditions of further secure and sustainable economic development and general well-being. A special attention in those conditions has to be paid to development of theoretically grounded approach to protection of critical infrastructure (CIP), damage or disruption of which can be immensely harmful to unprepared and therefore vulnerable institutions and society. The aim of this paper is to lay theoretical foundations for theoretically grounded approach towards research in CIP area, in order to formulate, ultimately, an approach towards action, which, employing leadership societal stakeholders would allow to enhance awareness of society actors about the threats, i.e, to develop ability to recognize, prevent, and, in case of disaster, to resist to consequences of critical infrastructure infringement. Hence, enhanced resilience of society to critical infrastructure infringement is and ultimate goal of fostering of leadership for critical infrastructure protection.
In terms of sustainable development, various forms of partnership are an important prerequisite for the development of companies, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Clusters are considered to be an effective form of support and innovation development for SMEs. Thus, enterprises working as a part of clusters are more efficient, flexible and resistant to external influences than large and hierarchical organizations. Clusters often arise spontaneously through the activities of local stakeholders who want to benefit from the synergy of the factors in the region, such as the existence of suppliers and customers, skilled labour force, specific resources and infrastructure. There are more than 20 clusters operating in the Slovak Republic. The majority of cluster members are SMEs. SMEs have many specificities and their engagement with clusters is influenced by various factors. For instance, many SMEs are often not sufficiently innovative or find it difficult to implement the results of their research and development into practical and successful innovation in the market. Bearing in mind the conditions of sustainable development, the authors examined the reasons why SMEs got engaged with clusters and enhanced their further development in terms of competitiveness. Moreover, the authors placed emphasis on their ability to innovate their products, technologies and/or services. Attention was also paid to the increased number of joint projects in the field of business, new market placement options and access to new information, as well as the acquisition of new partners, and employment growth in the regions in which these enterprises operate. The purpose of the paper was to identify the most relevant reasons why SMEs got engaged with clusters in terms of sustainable development. In order to achieve this purpose, an empirical study was carried out. The results were evaluated by quantitative tools of statistics (percentage, average values, standard deviation, chi-square test and Cramér’s V). The results showed that the most important reasons that made SMEs’ engage with clusters were entry to new markets and getting new partners.