The article indicates the threats of crime on the Internet and the specificity of criminals’ activities. Moreover, the content of the work shows how dynamically crime is changing on the Internet and it may affect all users. Nevertheless, the youngest are the most vulnerable to the actions of criminals because they can easily trust a perpetrator, who wants to commit a crime against a minor. Today, we all use different websites more frequently because the current pandemic situation in the world shows that both study, play and work only takes place in the virtual world (Hofmolk 2009).Online crime is now very dynamic and dangerous due to the high number of victims that were affected this type of online crime. Each of us could fall victim to hackers more than once in the network, however, we managed to react and prevent entry into our devices and data theft. The most dangerous thing is that the perpetrators are often anonymous because finding these people is almost impossible due to their skills in this area. The police have many mechanisms to combat this phenomenon, however, in many cases it is impossible to confirm who was the perpetrator of the incident online. Identification in the network is very difficult to detect because the perpetrators do not leave behind any signs such as: fingerprints, image or voice. The aim of the article was to indicate new forms of crime on the Internet and to show the broad spectrum of activities of offenders on the Internet. It was also indicated how big is the dynamics of crime and the emergence of newer and newer forms of online activity.
Włókiennicza Street in Łódź is currently undergoing a revitalisation process, which is also to include specific social activities for its residents. The revitalisation aims to raise the urban and architectural standard of this street, formerly known as Kamienna Street. The author describes Włókiennicza Street’s cultural transformation in the context of the theory of the relationship between the physical environment and crime. In particular, the author analyses the transformation from a street of wealthy residents to a street that is notorious for crime and poverty, and the contemporary hopes for changing the character of this part of the city as a result of a revitalisation project. Based on this, he raises the question about the necessary pedagogical and social measures in addition to strictly architectural measures.
Victimization is the process of assuming the role of a victim. Even early criminological theories indicated how important an individual’s personality can be in this process. In contemporary theories of the psychopathology, the causes of vulnerability to becoming a victim lie in maladaptive schemas, i.e. dysfunctional patterns of thinking, behaviour and experiencing emotions. Research indicates that, in particular, the area of disconnection / rejection that develops in early childhood in relationships with parents and / or peers promotes susceptibility to victimization. The article describes the cases of three patients who were diagnosed with the indicated patterns in the area of disconnection / rejection, as a result of experiencing direct violence in their childhood. Their examples show how the tendency to become a victim continues in adulthood. It seems important to recognize maladaptive schemas, also in the context of the victimization process. Proper work with the victims of crime can be the basis for environmental change, which will be important both for avoiding victimisation in the future, but also for stabilizing the negative behaviour of the perpetrators themselves.
The issues of terrorism, protection against crime, anti-social behaviour, and sociopathological phenomena are current topics in today’s world. At present, there is no effective assessment in the Czech Republic of the physical security of buildings which could be the target of the threats. Within the security research of the Czech Republic, research was carried out whose main objective was to assess the existing level of physical security of public universities, with the subsequent determination of the minimum level of physical security of these buildings using new processes, practices, and technologies. In the Czech Republic, such research has not yet been realized. The main objective of the research was to thoroughly assess the current level of physical security of buildings at a representative sample of public universities, to create a security standard ensuring the minimum level of physical security of public universities against threats of terrorism, crime, anti-social behaviour, and also sociopathological phenomena. The contribution to the field of physical security in science is a rigorous assessment of the level of physical security measures of public universities, the analysis of criminal acts, security incidents, emergencies, risk designation, and the design of security measures. The benefit for practice is the creation of a security standard to ensure the minimum level of security of public buildings by physical security measures.
The key purpose of this research is to explore the nexus between crime, socio economic strains and the economic growth of Thailand. The study has used the ARDL technique to achieve the objectives of the study. The finding revealed the fact that the roles of crime have been well emphasized in the literature, especially on how it acts as a stoppage on the progress of the economy in terms of growth. A crime committed in the economy incurs more expenditure and causes the mobility of highly skilled labour which is worse than the formal labour market. Socioeconomic strains have similar dimensions of impacts on crime variables regarding the positive relationship based on the above results. Deterrence variables performed as expected on other crime variables except on person’s crime. Family instability showed a positive impact on property crime. The extent that socioeconomic strain affects crime variables has shown that the strain of frustration, anger and stress in people are exhibited in the social and economic factors that prevail in Thailand. Individuals facing economic hardships brought by socioeconomic factors would innovate alternative means to survive.
Security, living environment, or entrepreneurship ecosystem is determined by wide array of factor. We tackle organized crime issues, which can cause potential insolvensy. In this article, the authors deal with a set of European Court of Human Rights decisions concerning the right to a fair trial and the use of an agent in criminal proceedings. From the investigated decisions, the authors conclude that the individual Slovak regulation, agent provocateur under § 117 par. 2 second sentence of the Criminal Procedure Code, a priori, is not inconsistent with decisions of the European Court of Human Rights. This is subject to the condition that the provision in question of the Criminal Procedure Code is interpreted in accordance with the principles established in the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights.
The Part II is the continuation of the discussions begun in the last issue of Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues 6(3) in area of ensuring public security in the fight against crime and focuses in particular on the importance of creating models for control and prevention of new crime acts. Also, the problems of prevention and control of some conditionally distinguished criminal processes – shadow economy, corruption, fight against human trafficking and domestic violence – are scrutinized. In consideration of the limited scope of the work and striving for the concentration of the research, analysis of these criminal processes is conducted just to the extent it is important in order to distinguish the main topical issues pertaining to the modernization of coordination for ensuring public security.
The basis of this paper is the study of legislative acts of such counties as Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Ukrainie and Russia, related to national security, public order and interests of state prosperity in order to prevent disorders or crimes, to protect health and morality, to safeguard rights and freedoms. The objective of the paper is to assess whether the national legislation meets in this field contemporary requirements, and what are differences in comparison with the legislation of other countries. Our results show that the laws of above mentioned countries are supplemented in due time as much as possible taking into account needs and financial resources of corresponding state. The laws have also similar objectives and tasks. There are some distinctions in application of legal provisions, which, after discussion, would be usefully to introduce into normative regulations of the Republic of Latvia. The norms of law must be clearly defined; the commensurate restrictions must be appropriate for achievement of particular objective, as well as socially necessary. Moreover, the authors of the paper offer concrete proposals taking into account human rights, contemporary situation on the international scene, as well as potential of respective state institution.
This article aims to find how government expenditure for the sectors of defense, public order and safety influence the economic situation and national security in Lithuania. The problem how government expenditure for public safety relates to statistics of national security and economic situation in the country is analyzed in the article. The fundamental aspects of the structure of public expenditure and relationship between major defense, public order and economic indicators are analyzed in the article. Analysis is made using self-made figures and counted coefficients that show the strength of the relation of the analyzed factors. Resulting conclusions give an answer how government expenditure affects economic situation and safety of the country.
This paper analyzes theoretical issues of relationship between unemployment, poverty and crime in sustainable development. The concepts of these socio-economical categories were analyzed and theoretical aspects of relationship between unemployment, poverty and crime were disclosed. It was found that unemployment, poverty and crime, as distinct socio-economical process is not widely considered in the literature. More often the specific relationships between two of the variables are studied. The evaluation of unemployment and poverty, unemployment and crime, crime and poverty showed that all three components are linked together through a negative connotation with socio-economical consequences, which further reinforces the ignoring of principles of sustainable development in the socio-economical policy of the country.