Despite rich experience indicating that waging wars is risky and not very ‘profitable’, particularly from the last decades’ perspective, and it also has a demoralizing effect on societies engaged in the conflict strengthening the tendency to aggression, nationalism, at the same time destroying the natural environment, it is difficult to imagine the world without an armed confrontation in the future. Such a course of action is proven by ‘the Ukrainian scenario’, or the situation in the Middle East. Motives pushing people to armed confrontations are quite complex and do not result from a simple need of domination and possession. War is quite closely connected with the domain of the sacred. Violence and religion are placed in close neighbourhood. Thus can values represented by great monotheist religions be ‘useful’ in the conducted polemological-irenological discourse and in the process of building a desired international security system? Do the components fostering war aggression dominate over ‘pacifist reflection’ in Judaic-Christian and Islamic spirituality? One may risk a statement that religion regardless of time and latitude, is not an indifferent factor from the point of view of waged conflicts.
Scouting is a system that developed at the beginning of the last century and is now entering the era of information society. A sense of brotherhood increases the feeling of security. Scouting is a proposal for an upbringing based on active and compassionate values related to relationships with others, for others and for self-improvement and the common pursuit of the ideal. Scout activity, his willingness to serve, experience and interact with other brothers scouts around their world promotes the opening of values in their different dimensions.
The author of this article, using the heritage of history, analyzes some themes that shape Polish penitentiary policy. The issuses are connected with the religious context in the area of remedial influence on people isolated in prison. Religion, which is now present in social area, was not always accepted by people who play important roles in the state and in the prison system due to their views. Therefore, the author asks the question of a potential factor that would affect the people in order to be able to function according to social expectations. It can be considered that remedial actions on the basis of religious or secular methods may be a starting point for developing an expected repair model. It is also noticed that faith and religiosity can cause the transformation of imprisoned people, initiate it.
This study is the result of many years of permanent observation of the broadly understood area of security and the area of penitentiary science that is strictly connected with it. Due to the complexity of the undertaken considerations, the author of the study decided to emphasise a certain space, which is of an extremely significant value for utilitarian reasons. However, the issue in question has never been fully described in literature. The conducted research and the data obtained as a result indicate unequivocally that there is a need to examine the management of security systems in penitentiary institutions in Poland by a thorough analysis of its individual components.
The article presents the problem of selected aspects of social security in Poland. A source of motivation to address the issue of social security for the author was the geopolitical situation related to the increase in the number of Muslim immigrants in Europe in recent years and the current COVID-19 epidemic. Counteracting the threats of a social nature has become one of the main activities of the state in the 21st century. Social security relates to a wide range of activities carried out by the public administration, NGOs and the local communities to guarantee decent living conditions. All of this constitutes a special kind of security, the lack of which directly interferes with the foundations of a nation’s existence. The aim of the study was to present issues related to the depopulation process affecting Poland and the demographically unfavourable changes taking place in modern families. The article presents the situation prior to the emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic. Undoubtedly, the COVID-19 epidemic will significantly affect social security, also in the demographic dimension. However, the overall impact of the epidemic can only be estimated after it has completely ceased. Conclusions included in the article were formulated on the basis of the analysis of statistical data of the Central Statistical Office. In addition, the author points out the consequences resulting from a long-term demographic collapse in the country.
Suicide attempts and suicides occur in every social group. The intensification of suicidal phenomena is manifested in the group of people subject to imprisonment. The main categories of suicidal causes fall into the area of mental, social and biological determinants. The most common cause, according to research on the people in prison, is the deprivation of personal freedom of an individual and life problems disrupting the functioning of the family. People subject to imprisonment express various attitudes towards suicide attempts and suicides. Almost every fourth inmate shows a positive attitude towards suicidal behaviour. This group of inmates should be provided with special educational and rehabilitation care.
The present article analyses the relationship between coping styles, defence mechanisms and time perspectives in subjects representing type I and II alcohol dependence according to the classification developed by Lesch. The results showed that among people belonging to type I addiction according to Lesch, a higher intensity of coping style focused on emotions is associated with a higher level of immature defence mechanisms, in particular denial and devaluation. A higher intensity of task-focused coping style in type I alcohol dependent individuals according to Lesch is accompanied by the use of mature defence mechanisms, such as humour and anticipation. In the group of people with type II alcoholism according to Lesch, focusing on past positive events is associated with an increased use of avoidant coping style, as well as its two subscales – engaging in substitute activities and seeking social contacts.
The aim of the research was to analyse letters written by prisoners so as to discover what the penitentiary space means to them. The practical goal was to show the usefulness of employing epistolography in assessing the quality of social and living conditions and to evaluate the quality of penitentiary practices in the context of prisoners’ needs, as well as to unmask the hidden re-education programme. The article is based on the results of the content analysis of 26 anonymised letters written by prisoners who for the first time serve a sentence in Polish closed regime prisons. The collected research material was subjected to a framework analysis supplemented by an emergent technique. The analysis of prison letters indicates a generally critical assessment of the quality of the practices carried out and their accuracy in relation to the prisoner’s rehabilitation needs. The letters reveal also the existence of a hidden re-education programme. The use of the epistolary corpus in the description of the penitentiary space may result in the improvement of the current penitentiary methods. A thorough analysis of prison letters indicate areas that require change or the application of specific solutions that may contribute to the rationalization of penitentiary practices.
This article presents the rights of Prison Service officers regarding the preventive use of direct coercive measures. The concepts of the use and application of direct coercive measures were defined in relation to the Prison Service. The purposes of preventive use are presented with examples. The catalogue and basic principles of the use of direct coercive measures, which can be applied as preventive measures in the Polish Prison Service, are described. The above issues were adapted to the statutory protective tasks of this formation.
The aim of the comparative analysis presented here was in a way to show a catalogue of ways of handling cases in which the complainant is incarcerated. Additionally the aim of this study is an attempt at explicating the current legal status in Poland in terms of the institution of lodging complaints by detainees and its functioning, and to compile a comparative analysis in the same subject area. In addition, the aim of the study is an attempt to present de lege lata conclusions and de lege ferenda postulates in the context of the matter in question. It should be emphasized that the institution of a complaint is notoriously used by persons deprived of their liberty, which is clearly visible in the statistical analysis presented in the article. For this reason, it seems justified to undertake legislative work in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and the Central Management of the Academy of Justice. This study uses a triangulation of the following research methods: descriptive research method, theoretical and legal method, comparative method with the elements of comparative law, and statistical method. The legal status adopted in the paper as on 30 October 2020.