The purpose of this paper is to analyze the implementation of investments in the water and sewage sector in Poland and other European countries using the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) formula. The paper identifies the strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats arising from the use of this formula for local government public tasks for the delivery and treatment of domestic wastewater, in the context of EU legislation. It also examines the validity of the use of PPP in the context of the implementation of the principle of sustainable development in water management. PPPs are commonly used to deliver strategic public services under financial limitations. Countries such as the United Kingdom and Ireland, based on years of experience and good practices, are effectively implementing PPP projects, including those in the water and sewerage sector. The provision of treated drinking water and the treatment of municipal wastewater is a fundamental task ensuring an adequate quality of life for people by maintaining public health at an appropriate level. The fact that water and sanitation infrastructure and service provision in this sector is expensive, both at the construction and operational stages, has led countries at different levels of development to turn to public-private partnerships. Properly managed PPP projects secure the interests of both the private and public partner and the end user of the services. The analysis of data and examples of European PPPs in the water and wastewater sector shows that PPPs have been successful for most public entities that have chosen them. Good practices from Scotland, Ireland and Poland, as well as projects that have experienced difficulties, show that stable and friendly legislation, thorough pre-feasibility studies and an appropriate allocation of risk make PPPs successful. In the context of the conducted analysis, PPP is a tool enabling the realization of tasks in the water and sewage sector, where the public party’s budget possibilities are limited. Moreover, PPP is a component of the realization of the sustainable development principle. The idea that the use of natural resources, including water, which is fundamental to the biological and cultural needs of humankind, should be met in such a way as to save them for future generations, is realized in PPP projects. This paper demonstrates that the use of financial assembly opportunities in PPPs makes it possible to significantly intensify the construction of new and upgrading of existing water and wastewater infrastructure. It contributes to the protection of aquatic ecosystems and securing public health associated with living in direct proximity to surface water and discharging wastewater without affecting the natural environment and human habitats.
The aim of the article was to determine the relationship between the occurrence of social pathologies (alcoholism, drug addiction, violence and aggression, poor financial standing, poverty, unemployment and crime) and the sense of security in local communities. The results of the research were put in the context of sustainable development. The article uses the method of diagnostic survey, with surveying as the technique and questionnaire as the tool for collecting empirical data. The survey covered 600 respondents in the following towns: Siedlce, Włocławek, Zamość, Piła, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Zgierz. The data obtained allowed to solve the research problem posed in the article and in an innovative way to demonstrate the relationship between the occurrence of basic social pathologies and their impact on the safety of the local community. The obtained results show that the respondents are aware of the occurrence of individual social pathologies in their local environment, as well as perceive their significant impact on functioning in the local community covered by the survey and have knowledge of the impact of negative phenomena on sustainable development. The article presents the author’s approach to the issue of finding out about social pathologies and indicating their influence on the sense of security in the local community, as well as their importance for sustainable development.
Development of the civilization was always accompanied by the knowledge and technological progress. Tools made us more skilful, capable and efficient. we currently observe intensification of transformations. Complementary education is a concept which assumes that the teaching-learning process should flexibly combine traditional education and, characteristic for it, direct communication with remote education, using the Internet and other forms of media. The essence of complementary education for sustainable development is to combine these two modes of education so that the individual elements are matched to each other, complement each other and are tailored to the needs and abilities of the student and teacher. Among these media, the computer and the Internet play a key role.
Microcredit emerged in the 1970s, in Bangladesh, as a tool for sustainable development. However, in Portugal, it only took its first steps in the late 1980’s and emerged as a response to unemployment. This paper provides an overview of micro credit system in Portugal and aims to identify the profile of the successful microentrepreneur and point out the reasons that most contribute to the sustainability of microcredit business initiatives. Although the paper is mainly exploratory, we combined different methodologic approaches. First, we conducted interviews with key informants, then, we applied a questionnaire to microentrepreneurs. The survey contained three sections, namely, socio-demographic characteristics; characteristics of project; attitude as an entrepreneur. A sample group consisting of 96 participants of microfinance programme participated in the research. The findings indicate that the profile of the successful microentrepreneur is an individual with a superior degree, already have been employed, with positive or very positive level for the innovation of the product/service, for the adjustment of the business to the environment, for prior planning and for the accompaniment by public/non-profit institution. In a less degree, a positive level for training/professional experience in the project area and a positive level for self-esteem/self-confidence have also some influence. The results point out that the attitude as a microentrepreneur is less important than the characteristics of the project to the outcome of the microenterprise.
The article considers the problem of forming the vector of economic development on the principles of sustainable development and social economy. State security is based not only on successful economic development, but also on maintaining a balance of social interests. Social entrepreneurship is contrary to social stratification and confrontation in society. As an empirical basis for this direction of development, the authors explore the segment of non-profit organizations with constant income and organizations providing services in the social sphere of Kazakhstan. In the absence of an official definition of social entrepreneurship, these types of socially oriented activities most fully implement the principles of sustainable development, while at the same time forming economic and social value. The results of a sociological study reveal the microscopic extent of this phenomenon in Kazakhstan, and the overwhelming array of respondents focuses on the system of institutional support for social entrepreneurship. The authors developed recommendations on the regulatory legal status of social entrepreneurs and the main directions of their institutional support. Particular attention is paid to the development of intersectoral and intra-sectoral ties in the development of social entrepreneurship. The emphasis is on the accelerator model, as the most productive form of support, which has a network nature and is based on coordination mechanisms between the state and non-state actors. The formation of a full-fledged institutional environment will ensure the stability and progression of the economic development of socially oriented activities and create a critical mass of entities acting on the principles of sustainable development in the unity of economic and social values of social development.
The paper highlights theoretical and practical approaches to the development of a sustainable type of tourism in the region. The concept of “sustainable tourism development” has been clarified, the relationship between its components on the basis of the author’s approach has been identified, which allows finding its most promising segment – international cruise tourism. The paper also discusses the optimization model for the development of international tourism in a region. Among the main segments that influence the development of cruise tourism in the region, sea, river and expeditionary cruises are considered. The profitability of the segments that affect the sustainable development of international cruise tourism in the region has been calculated.
Sustainable development of any country is hardly possible without viable small business. The development of small businesses has a number of advantages, which are expressed in the activation of structural adjustment of the economy, providing freedom of market choice and additional jobs, ensuring rapid cost recovery, and rapid response to changes in consumer demand. Small business leads to saturation of the market with goods and services, overcoming industry and territorial monopolies, and increasing the level of competition. In Kazakhstan, state support for small and medium-sized businesses is multi-level in the implementation of measures to reduce the tax burden, implement a set of measures to facilitate access to credit resources, simplify administrative procedures and permits, and organize regional centers to support small and medium-sized businesses in cities and rural areas.
Family businesses are identified in many instances as small-scale entities. However, among family businesse, there are many huge corporations, and many of the world’s best-known brands are classified as being family orientated. They generate large revenues, which play a very important role in the global economy. In Poland, several examples of well-known brands belonging to families can be found, such as Mokate, Comarch and Farmacol. The aim of the article is to present selected large Polish family businesses against the background of some of the largest family businesses globally and to determine the difference between them. The research followed an empirical approach and is based on the analysis of secondary data sources, such as Ernst & Young Family Business Yearbook report series from 2015-2017, the Global Family Business Index ranking, and studies on Polish family businesses. The analyses confirmed that many of the global largest enterprises are indeed family businesses. The importance of family businesses in the economy is evident by the fact that in 2015, enterprises from the Global Family Business Index generated revenues higher than the GDP of most countries in the world. None of the large Polish family businesses have yet found their place in the analysed ranking, but also, in Poland, family businesses play a significant role, and some of them generate revenues of several billion dollars. Familism does not prevent enterprises from achieving a significant position in the market the largest family businesses in the world play such a strong role that their success or failure may affect the condition of the entire economy. Polish family businesses are not yet included in this group, but they are constantly growing. It can, therefore, be anticipated that in a few years, Polish family businesses will have a good representation in the Global Family Business Index and will help to ensure sustainable development of the Polish economy.
The research work considers the essence and features of human capital accumulation at the company level in order to provide its economic security. The main components of intellectual capital in the format of human, organizational and customer capital have been studied. The managerial rationality of using the method of direct evaluation of intellectual capital and the method based on market capitalization has been proved. Both methods give the greatest organizational effect in providing economic security. The empirical study of using the quantitative assessment of human capital of a machine-building company has been carried out in order to strengthen its economic security.
International migration is a functional component of modern societies, both wealthy and poor. In a way, one can see that migration solves the unequal distribution of people and opportunities. Despite the political pressure to control immigration, almost all changes in politics have broadened the scope of legal immigration to allow for settlement by refugees, farm workers (in case of urbanrural migrations), “illegal” immigrants with long-term residence in the country, and workers in great demand to move around freely. Our main research objective is to demonstrate, using the available data as well as the analysis of the metadata and the research literature, that migration, especially labour migration, has a narrow connection with the issues of national security. Large outflows and inflows of people might bring about security threats linked to organized crime, terrorism and the spread of radical ideas. Moreover, migration is responsible for the brain drain of young and well-educated people who are searching for higher wages and better opportunities abroad depriving their own home country of valuable human capital. Our paper analyses the phenomenon of international migration perceived from the angle of migration culture that goes hand in hand with recent globalization trends all around the world. We come to a solid conclusion that migration policy should be treated as an important element in establishing well-ballanced national security policy in the globalized world. It might be of a particular interest for the migration scholars, labour market economists and stakeholders and policy-makers dealing with the issues of national security, public and migration policies, as well as sustainable economic development.