The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the number of employees in the enterprise sector in Poland on a quarterly basis between 2010-2021 and new and withdrawn jobs dynamically in terms of economic security. The volume of employment and salary for work in Poland in the enterprise sector by type of activity was analyzed. The last stage of the research was the analysis and evaluation of the time series of salaries in Poland and its forecasting for the future.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the exchange rates of five currencies: dollar, euro, franc, pound and ruble in zlotys and crude oil in dollars per barrel from 2005 to 2022. The research was conducted in terms of the identification of contemporary challenges for the economic security of enterprises in Poland. Grouping was used as part of multidimensional comparative analyzes. In the categorized line charts, in order to observe the trends in dynamic terms as a decrease and an increase in the rates of the analyzed data, a separate Y-axis scale was assigned to each of the analyzed dependent variables.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of apartment prices in seventeen cities in Poland from the first quarter of 2017 to the first quarter of 2021 in terms of the maintenance of economic security. Prices were analyzed in two aspects: value and dynamics of changes, referring to the first period under consideration in spatial terms (in each of the seventeen cities). The research used multidimensional comparative analyzes, such as: Chernoff faces and normalization with the use of stimulants. This, in turn, made it possible to examine the similarities and differences in the prices of 1 m2 of residential real estate in respective cities in Poland in a dynamic approach.
Economic security of any state is multifaceted. Affordability of basics, required for living serves are precondition for economic security of any state. The study presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of apartment sales in respective voivodships in Poland. The following dependent variables concerning apartments in sixteen voivodships were analyzed: price per \( m^2 \), number of sales and its value. The dynamics indices on a constant basis and the normalization for stimulants were used for the analyzes. The results of the research were compiled on categorized bar charts, conducting the ranking, as well as indicating and outlining the level of deviation of the analyzed data adopted by the author. The conducted research clearly showed how much of an impact on the state’s economy, with particular emphasis on the subject of research presented in the article, which is the apartment trade market, has a random incident, such as a pandemic, and how difficult it is to return to the conditions before Covid-19.
State security is a key issue both for the state as an entity and for its inhabitants. The economic security of the state is a particularly important component which can manifest itself on many different levels. The most important of them is financial security. This aspect of security is relevant as in modern economies money is the key value. Therefore, the financial security of the state is a component of economic security, but at the same time its key determinant. The level of financial security, which in the simplest terms is an ability to raise funds when needed, is influenced by a number of factors, the most important of which are the stability of the financial sector, the size of public debt, as well as the size and structure of the country’s foreign exchange reserves. This paper attempts to analyze individual factors that affect the condition of financial security of the state. In the next part, a structural analysis of the most important aspects of the state’s financial security was performed. The research showed that the state of Poland’s financial security could now be assessed quite highly, but the effectiveness of all the measures taken by the government and the central bank to date would be verified in the near future through the development of the situation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the drops in the number of passengers transported by rail in 28 European countries on a quarterly basis in 2012-2020 in terms of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and economic security. Data collected from Eurostat on the number of passengers transported by rail in 28 European countries were aggregated and further analyzed in order to emphasize the regularities governing them. The research has observed a growing trend on an annual and quarterly basis in the total number of passengers transported by rail in 28 European countries in 2012-2019. Additionally, in the unnamed (quarterly) data, a quarterly seasonality was detected. Since 2020, there have been declines in the number of passengers transported by rail in all of the 28 European countries considered. The declines were subjected to a comparative analysis, adopting various criteria, in order to assess which countries were most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of rail passenger transport.
The study attempts to present the impact of Russian policy on Saudi Arabia in terms of economic security. Analyses of primary data on the quantitative states of the possessed oil and gas resources and their annual consumption, as well as the state of essential armaments of Russia and Saudi Arabia were carried out and evaluated. As a result of the analysis of the literature of the research, it was observed that the potential of Russian-Saudi military cooperation is unrealized. One of the goals of Russian policy is to seek to limit the influence of both Saudi Arabia and the United States in the Middle East region. This limitation allows Saudi Arabia itself to not dictate world oil prices. The United States, on the other hand, due to its huge demand for oil, is forced to pursue such a policy in order to be guaranteed an adequate price and continuity of supply to meet its oil needs now and in the future.
The methodological and formative foundations for the development of the corporate social responsibility practice of international companies to ensure a sustainable level of economic security are defined in the article. It has been determined that the corporate social responsibility of international business is a systemic guideline in the development of corporate plans for market development, which are explained by the annual increase in the degree of integration of economic processes in the context of globalization, which provides for corporate transparency, social responsibility, and business efficiency. With the organizational foundations, it has been revealed that the concept of corporate social responsibility provides an opportunity to position oneself as a reliable employer and business structure, which is successfully developing and operates in accordance with international standards and requirements of the modern market. The modern directions of implementation of the practice of corporate social responsibility of international business have been substantiated, a structure for assessing the social responsibility of international business has been formed. An information map of social investment in the international business environment has been developed. The main areas and directions of corporate social responsibility in the international business environment that ensure economic security are highlighted and structured. A system of indicators for a comprehensive assessment of corporate social responsibility in the business environment and a method for ranking the integral indicator within the limits of corporate economic security have been developed.
The article solves the current scientific problem of substantiation of theoretical and methodological bases of forecasting the regional aspect of ensuring economic security of the national economy and the development of conceptual guidelines and practical recommendations for improving management processes. The impact of threats on the economic security of the regions was determined. The use of cluster analysis tools allowed to determine the impact of socio-economic development factors on the economic security of the regions. It was established that the economic security of the “Higher”regional cluster is affected by such threats as the loss of sales markets, reduction of protection and rational use of natural resources, the level of control over corruption, political stability and the absence of violence/terrorism. The economic security of the “Average”regional cluster is affected by declining political stability and the absence of violence/terrorism, protection and rational use of natural resources, loss of sales markets, reduction of human development level, efficiency of state power, supremacy of the law. The economic security of the “Lower”regional cluster is affected by the loss of sales markets, declining human development level, control over corruption, efficiency of state authority, political stability and the absence of violence/terrorism, protection and rational use of natural resources. It is recommended to develop the Strategy of economic development of regions on the basis of the world experience for the purpose of ensuring economic security of national economy of the country.
It has been proven that foreign direct investment is an effective means of influencing the economic security of each country. Sectoral priorities of foreign investment can be divided into three groups: services sector, food industry and oil and gas sector. Capital investment in the services sector was determined by factors in the development of information and telecommunication technologies, internationalization of services and the implementation of liberalization policies by countries receiving direct foreign investments. The interest in attracting foreign investments in the above sector was shown by developed and developing countries. The oil and gas sector of Africa and North America has been an attractive investment object for international companies in West Asia. The increase in the number of M&A agreement in the food industry has been observed in developed and developing countries and was conditioned by the interest of international companies in reducing production costs and expanding the source of revenue at the expense of growing market demand. The necessity to introduce a mechanism for management of corporate rights in the system of national security has been substantiated. The corporate rights and responsibilities of participants in corporate legal entities established in EU member states are the subject of harmonization of EU legislation in the area of company law only to the extent necessary to ensure an equivalent degree of protection of their interests within the Community, to create a favorable environment for the conclusion of cross-border agreements and the effective functioning of the domestic market.