The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the impact of crude oil and liquefied petroleum gasses (LPG) prices on the housing price index in 28 European countries. Research shows that the COVID-19 pandemic and the attack of Russia on Ukraine have led to similar large fluctuations in crude oil and LPG prices. This, in turn, contributed to an increase in inflation and house price indices in the 28 analyzed European countries. Such an increase was driven by higher total construction costs, including higher prices for materials, energy and charges for building services. Housing prices in respective European countries vary. The study examines the dynamics of their changes and compares them with the use of ranking.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the exchange rates of five currencies: dollar, euro, franc, pound and ruble in zlotys and crude oil in dollars per barrel from 2005 to 2022. The research was conducted in terms of the identification of contemporary challenges for the economic security of enterprises in Poland. Grouping was used as part of multidimensional comparative analyzes. In the categorized line charts, in order to observe the trends in dynamic terms as a decrease and an increase in the rates of the analyzed data, a separate Y-axis scale was assigned to each of the analyzed dependent variables.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of apartment prices in seventeen cities in Poland from the first quarter of 2017 to the first quarter of 2021 in terms of the maintenance of economic security. Prices were analyzed in two aspects: value and dynamics of changes, referring to the first period under consideration in spatial terms (in each of the seventeen cities). The research used multidimensional comparative analyzes, such as: Chernoff faces and normalization with the use of stimulants. This, in turn, made it possible to examine the similarities and differences in the prices of 1 m2 of residential real estate in respective cities in Poland in a dynamic approach.
The study focuses on the generalization of the methodology of transport planning with the use of the LOGFAS IT system. The main activities that must be performed in order to plan the transport correctly in the IT software were presented. This process requires a lot of experience and work in many program modules and the implementation of a lot of different information without which planning is impossible.
The article presents a multidimensional comparative analysis of the number of employees in the enterprise sector in Poland on a quarterly basis between 2010-2021 and new and withdrawn jobs dynamically in terms of economic security. The volume of employment and salary for work in Poland in the enterprise sector by type of activity was analyzed. The last stage of the research was the analysis and evaluation of the time series of salaries in Poland and its forecasting for the future.
The aim of the research is to assess convergence processes of a social-economic security indicator in Latvian municipalities and its components in the period 2011–2015, calculated as an integral indicator on the basis of primary statistical indicators. The relevance of the research is determined by the fact that social-economic security establishes not only the sustainable economic development of the country as a whole, but also the state of protection from internal and external threats. Municipalities, implementing their autonomous functions, are primary guarantors of social-economic security of the people. The convergence of social-economic security of municipalities implies the process of their convergence in time according to the values of the level of social-economic security.
In scientific work the peculiarities of innovation processes in the activity of high-tech companies are determined. The functional and managerial components of ensuring the security of development of high-tech companies are determined on the basis of establishing centers of responsibility for the support of innovative projects. The model of support of sustainable innovation development is developed and the algorithm of formation of the structure of business of high-tech companies with the purpose of strengthening of organizational security of out-of-date development is offered. The recommendations on harmonization of innovation development and security of commercial activity for high-tech companies are given.
In the Middle East, vast oil reserves led to economic modernization and prosperity in the region. However, it is one of the most conflict-prone regions. This paper studies the relationship between military spending, oil and development in Middle Eastern countries using a panel data fixed effect for country-level observations over the period 1986–2016. The relationship between development and conflict will not be uniform throughout the region. Therefore, to test this hypothesis, the study categorized oil exporting countries into three parts that are countries with above average oil export, below average oil export and no oil export. The estimates show a significant reduction in military spending over time and the most declines were observed in the countries where oil export is above average than the Middle East. The results indicate a significant inverse relationship between the military spending with exports and oil rents in overall Middle East analysis and for countries whose average oil export is greater than the Middle East. It is also found that the military burden adversely affects economic growth across all the model specification. However, military spending is declining over time which indicates that there is a reverse causality between development and conflict. It is crucial finding in the context of peace and development literature.
The theoretical and methodological principles of researching the tax security of a state were substantiated with the emphasis placed on the two basic economic theories: the social choice theory and the reflectivity theory. The differential features of national tax systems under globalization conditions and their impact on the economic security of the countries that differ in the political regime, the level of economic development, geography and location were identified. There was given the assessment of the cross-sector approach, based on which multifactor effective marginal tax rates in the European Union (EU) are calculated, and of the marginal approach to taxation in general. The analytical study of tax security of the countries of Organization of economic cooperation and development (OECD) was carried out based on the assessment of the specific weight of taxes in gross domestic product, as well as the structure of taxes in the context of taxation objects: income individuals, income corporates, social security contributions, property, value added taxes, other consumption taxes. A particular attention is attached to the problems of taxation of the motion of capital and goods between the EU countries within the framework of ensuring the mutual economic benefits of the collective interests. The assessment of external and internal threats to tax security of Ukraine was performed based on the identification of the shadow economy segment, reasons for its emergence and consequences for the national economy, as well as the dynamics of the absolute and relative indicators of the budget-debt security. The recommendations on strengthening the tax security of Ukraine under the European integration conditions were given.
The essence of economic and social security as a national and supranational category has been substantiated. The influence of political, economic and social factors on the condition of national and European security has been investigated. Priorities of the economic component of security have been defined: energy security, foreign trade and innovation-investment security, social security. The dialectical interrelationships of economic and social security have been established. The trends in economic and social security have been defined.