The objective of this article is to describe the system of defence education for Polish youth after 1989 and its transformations. The article indicates that in Polish primary and secondary schools today, the subject of security education is taught, and in some high schools – especially in Certified Military Uniformed Classes – the subject of military education is taught as well. Among students, however, the defence curriculum is taught mainly as part of extra-curricular activities, mainly within the Academic Legion and Passport Programme. On the basis of the research strengthening military potential is supported by the defence education of young people. The exploration underlined that achieving the defence objectives outlined by the programmes of the Ministry of National Defence in agreement with the Ministry of National Education. The study used the diagnostic survey research method and the techniques of content analysis, a questionnaire, interviews, and observations. The article conluds recommendations for security education curriculum.
The aim of the article is to present the basic aspects of command, functioning, decision-making, and responsibility. The author focuses on showing the broadly understood command system, especially in the course of implementing security tasks. Therefore, the content of the article presents an analysis of basic definitions, goals, assumptions, strategies of action for correctly perceived command based on the authority and genius of the person at the forefront of this process - the commander.
Command is seen as a process in which the commander imposes their will and manner of operation through orders, supported by an element of planning, organizing, anticipating, motivating, and controlling. The main and most important assumption of command is to create all possible circumstances to ensure maximum safety of execution of the task as well as for the entities participating in it. While analysing command as a process within a system, it should be emphasized that modern command system should be structured in such a way as to enable action to be correctly planned in a timely manner with a flexible and rapid response to changes in the situation. The ideal command system organized on principles of security should be able to gather relevant information continuously, comprehensively, selectively, and quickly. Command is the process of imposing the will of the commander and implementing their intentions, controlling the action and being responsible for decisions that often have very serious consequences. It is a responsible, multivariant and multi-entity process, which implemented skillfully, strengthens the position of the decision maker, as well as affects the morale of the performers and strives for the final success of the task.
The elementary interest of every country is to maintain its inner security and stability. To achieve this goal the state must restrict within legal frameworks some fundamental rights of its own citizens. One of these fundamental rights is the right to privacy that can be breached only under certain circumstances. It is easy to see that it is unacceptable for a state not to control within the legal frameworks the communication of its own citizens so they can commit crimes, run terrorist rings, or spy rings or establish drug cartels without any consequences. Of course, the control over the communication is not the only means of the successful investigation but undeniably a vital one. That is why the Janus faced nature of the Dark Web is a real security risk nowadays. Although this new medium is the fruit of the last two decades its presence today is stronger than ever before and its popularity is growing day by day. Its most important features are anonymity, hidden geolocation and freedom from censorship. The Dark Web is very useful when it provides anonymity for political dissidents and whistleblowers, but is very harmful when it provides the same features for arm and drug traffickers and terrorists not to mention for pedophiles and so on. This article aims to shed some light on the effects of the Dark Web on the security and economy of the states especially in the aspects of organized crime and the terrorism.
The article presents the current patterns in education of Prison Service officers on the example of one of the largest penitentiary units in Poland, i.e. the Penitentiary Facility in Włocławek. The tendencies and changes in provision by qualified staff in penitentiary system as a prerequisite of societal safety were defined due to analysis of data about education of officers of the Prison Service and penitentiary department in the years 1999–2019. In order to investigate the role of rehabilitation staff in the penitentiary system, it is important to assess the current distribution and structural changes in penitentiary staff which, in turn, can be crucial for achieving the objectives of the execution of the imprisonment penalty. To achieve and maintain societal safety, particularly security in penitentiary system it is important to consider changes in the capacity of the prisons. In this regard main positive trends are: increase of number and share of staff with special tertiary education affects the quality of the social rehabilitation work at the penitentiary facility; gender distribution of Prison Service staff tends to reflect distribution on prisoners; professional qualification of officers grows steadily. The main challenge for current penitentiary system in order to increase its educational impact on prisoners is hiring process which should be directed on attracting graduates of rehabilitation pedagogy and penitentiary pedagogy to work in the penitentiary department.
The security in penitentiary system depends a lot on prison subculture. This subculture consists in adopting values, norms and principles that facilitate to fulfil one’s own needs in conditions of imprisonment. However, very often informal groups base their activities on patterns derived from the criminal subculture. The prison subculture often depreciates human dignity, being one of the most important factors disturbing the process of institutional rehabilitation. At the same time, there is a lack of scientific researches that can help to develop the field of behavioural studies in informal structures culture which have a significant influence on the state security due to the efficiency of penitentiary system and its rehabilitation function. To mitigate the gap in current investigations in this field, this research deals with prison subculture in Polish penitentiary system based on survey of penitentiary service officers. Our findings allow to conclude the significant changes in prison subculture during last decade. The most important are: increase of authority among inmates with a better material situation (23%), a greater degree of implementation of rehabilitation programmes by inmates (18.8%), as well as blurring the differences between prisoners mainly due to their joint participation in group activities (17%). To strengthen the further positive effect of penitentiary system on social norms and behaviour of prisoners it is advisable to eliminate potential sources and possibilities for obtaining, accumulating and transferring illegal income by convicted persons. This action defined as main tool to mitigate the subculture phenomenon and its impact of the rehabilitation process in penitentiary institutions.
The energy security of the Visegrad Group countries is a derivative of their energy potential resulting from the lack of strategic natural gas and crude oil resources, limited fuel storage capacity and limited access to the transmission network. This causes a dependence on supplies of raw materials from Russia, which is not even, but applies to each of these countries. The Czech Republic and Slovakia have small deposits of natural gas and crude oil. Hungary and Poland have greater potential, but it is still not enough to achieve energy independence. The energy market of the V4 countries is of interest to the Russian Federation, but it is not a priority for it as it accounts for a small part of Russian transmissions. Russia aims to keep the market for crude oil and natural gas at a uniform level, but the actions of the V4 countries in terms of diversification of supplies, aimed at increasing the level of energy security, effectively hinder the implementation of this goal. The threat to the energy security of the V4 countries is related to their dependence on gas supplies from Gazprom. The terms of the contracts contain unfavorable clauses that negatively affect the sale of surplus Russian gas, as it is necessary to pay fees for the ordered gas regardless of the scale of its use. The differentiation in the energy policy of the Member States is also worth noting. An example is the lack of clear opposition from the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia to the plans to expand the Nord Stream and Turkish Stream gas pipelines. These states show interest in participating in projects, which, in fact, constitute the implementation of the Russian concept of building new transmission routes. Poland takes a different position, consistently preventing the implementation of Russian energy projects.
The sustainable, adequate, security and efficient operation of a central bank depends on many internal and external factors. New trends, challenges, and threats (which are associated with European integration, globalization, etc.) affect the sustainable, efficient, and security operations of the ECB, which can lead to economic or financial crises. Therefore, in the current situation, the concept of the Central Bank’s activities, its legal status and the institution of monetary policy should change completely. The purpose of this research was as follows: 1) to determine economic and legal aspects of sustainable, efficient and safe operation of the ECB, with a reflection on innovation and analysis of modern de lege lata trends to ensure sustainable development of the EU, 2) to prepare conclusions and to identify positive and negative aspects that affect the activities of the Central Bank, 3) on the basis of scientific and practical de lege lata research and its application, to develop de lege ferenda to improve the activities of the European System of Central Banks, the European Central Bank, national central banks and other institutions of the European Union.
This paper focuses on identifying risks in selected social facilities in relation to the possible occurrence of an emergency. Risks are dealt with for residential social facilities that provide meals all day long in the territorial scope of the city of České Budějovice. Via the application of the KARS method, selected risks are assessed using their correlations. In this way, the risks are divided into those that primarily threaten the examined social facilities, as well as risks that represent hierarchically-lower risks, or those that were assessed as relatively safe. The research investigated risks in relation to emergencies that occur when social services are provided within the cadastral territory of the České Budějovice. The KARS method was used to identify the risks that are most dangerous for social facilities. In the first stage of the analysis, group risks were ascertained that occur during the operations of individual facilities. The risks were divided into those that primarily threaten the social facilities, and to those which hierarchically represent lesser risks, or were assessed as relatively safe.
This article highlights the issue of national security through the lens of literature development. Since the information war has been going on against Ukraine for a long time, the instruments of influence on the consciousness of the population are constantly changing and the forms and methods of information dissemination are being improved, we decided to investigate the literary sources created during the Anti-terrorist Operation / Joint Forces Operation (further - ATO/JFO) period in order to highlight the trends of opinion formation. We used content analysis methods as a basis. The analyzed source base confirmed the thesis that fake and post-truth are artificially created and manipulative-imitation technologies that Putinists use for hybrid warfare. By imposing the post-truth era on the international community, the Kremlin regime creates a reality where emotions are dominated by facts. Thus, Russia's information strategy is based solely on the needs of the lower order.
The article deals with the problem of future development threats based on the methodology of industry foresight. As an empirical basis for this direction of forecasting, the authors study the mining and metallurgical complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan as a leading factor in the development of the entire national economy. The study is a pilot and focuses on assessing the risks that have formed that could pose a serious threat to the development of the industry, the economy and the country as a whole in the future. Summarizing the world experience in applying the foresight methodology, the authors use it to predict the security and sustainability of development in the medium-term. Using the risk mapping method, the authors identify safety zones in the development trends of the mining and metallurgical industry. The assessment of threats and risks also highlights the leading actors that affect the development of the industry. The main risks for Kazakhstan’s mining and metallurgical enterprises are the lack or shortage of local labor and its low skills. Automation of production processes and digitalization of production are becoming the leading trends in the development of the industry. The problem of improving the quality of workforce training and mastering the necessary skills by specialists is a serious threat to the development of the industry. The authors suggest using foresight tools not only to assess risks, but also to prevent their development into future threats.